- International law is a guide to judicial interpretations of the Constitution
- Clearly prohibits discrimination based on sex or gender
- Includes specific provisions on women’s rights and gender equality
- Adopted affirmative measures to realize equality of participation
The status assigned to international treaties by the various constitutions reflects a certain mistrust of the States of the region regarding international law, independently of the negative consequences of the reservations on women, and society, as monitored by the women’s movements in these countries. Out of the seven States, only four acknowledge in their Constitution their commitment to international treaties (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia) and only two of this latter (Algeria and Tunisia) recognize that ratified treaties prevail on acts of parliament.
The constitutions of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Palestine, and Tunisia prohibit discrimination based on sex and gender; Jordan and Lebanon do not yet. Jordan, Lebanon, and Palestine do not have specific provisions on women’s rights and gender equality, nor affirmative measures to achieve equal participation of women and men.
Even for the constitutions that prohibit sex discrimination and include specific provisions on women’s rights and affirmative measures to achieve equality between women and men (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia) a question of the effectiveness of these principles can arise because of the declaration of the supremacy of Islam as the State Religion, or the supremacy of the Sharia. This means, for these States, that if any treaty provision contradicts Islam it shall be considered in contradiction with the Constitution and shall not prevail on the latter.